12 July 2020 (MIA)
1470 – The Ottomans capture Euboea.
1493 – Hartmann Schedel’s Nuremberg Chronicle, one of the best-documented early printed books, is published.
1527 – Lê Cung Hoàng ceded the throne to Mạc Đăng Dung, ending the Lê dynasty and starting the Mạc dynasty.
1543 – King Henry VIII of England marries his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr, at Hampton Court Palace.
1561 – Saint Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow is consecrated.
1562 – Fray Diego de Landa, acting Bishop of Yucatán, burns the sacred books of the Maya.
1580 – The Ostrog Bible, one of the early printed Bibles in a Slavic language, is published.
1690 – Battle of the Boyne (Gregorian calendar): The armies of William III defeat those of the former James II.
1691 – Battle of Aughrim (Julian calendar): The decisive victory of William III of England’s forces in Ireland.
1776 – Captain James Cook begins his third voyage.
1789 – In response to the dismissal of the French finance minister Jacques Necker, the radical journalist Camille Desmoulins gives a speech which results in the storming of the Bastille two days later.
1790 – The Civil Constitution of the Clergy is passed in France by the National Constituent Assembly.
1799 – Ranjit Singh conquers Lahore and becomes Maharaja of the Punjab (Sikh Empire).
1801 – British ships inflict heavy damage on Spanish and French ships in the Second Battle of Algeciras.
1804 – Former United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton dies a day after being shot in a duel.
1806 – Sixteen German imperial states leave the Holy Roman Empire and form the Confederation of the Rhine.
1812 – The American Army of the Northwest briefly occupies the Upper Canadian settlement at what is now at Windsor, Ontario.
1862 – The Medal of Honor is authorized by the United States Congress.
1913 – Serbian forces begin their siege of the Bulgarian city of Vidin; the siege is later called off when the war ends.
1917 – The Bisbee Deportation occurs as vigilantes kidnap and deport nearly 1,300 striking miners and others from Bisbee, Arizona.
1918 – The Imperial Japanese Navy battleship Kawachi blows up at Shunan, western Honshu, Japan, killing at least 621.
1920 – The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty is signed, by which Soviet Russia recognizes the independence of Lithuania.
1943 – German and Soviet forces engage in one of the largest armored engagements of all time.
1948 – Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion orders the expulsion of Palestinians from the towns of Lod and Ramla.
1960 – Orlyonok, the main Young Pioneer camp of the Russian SFSR, is founded.
1961 – Pune floods due to failure of the Khadakwasla and Panshet dams, killing at least two thousand people.
1962 – The Rolling Stones perform their first concert, at the Marquee Club in London.
1970 – A fire consumes the wooden home of Norwegian composer Geirr Tveitt and irretrievably destroys about 90 percent of his output.
1971 – The Australian Aboriginal Flag is flown for the first time.
1975 – Sao Tomé and Príncipe declare independence from Portugal.
1979 – The island nation of Kiribati becomes independent from United Kingdom.
1989 – Lotte World Adventure opened in Seoul, South Korea.
1996 – Macedonia establishes diplomatic relations with Afghanistan and Malta.
2006 – Hezbollah initiates Operation True Promise.
2007 – U.S. Army Apache helicopters perform airstrikes in Baghdad, Iraq; footage from the cockpit is later leaked to the Internet.
2012 – The Turaymisah massacre kills 250 people during a Syrian military operation in a village within the Hama Governorate.
2012 – A tank truck explosion kills more than 100 people in Okobie, Nigeria.
2013 – Six people are killed and 200 injured in a passenger train derailment in Brétigny-sur-Orge, France.